The complexity and specificity of many forms of signal transduction require spatial microcompartmentation and dynamic modulation of the activities of signaling molecules, such as protein kinases, phosphatases and second messengers. In this talk, I will focus on cAMP/PKA, PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 or Ras/ERK signaling pathways and present studies where we combined genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, advanced imaging, targeted biochemical perturbations and mathematical modeling to probe the biochemical activity architecture of the cell.
Many disease states are characterized by molecular level changes that occur before detectable symptoms have begun to manifest. In order to maximize treatment outcomes it is essential to accurately detect such alterations at an early stage. Chemical probes designed to selectively image such molecular processes have the potential to not only aid in disease diagnosis but can also provide unique insights into disease progression.
Crystal growth theory predicts that heterogeneous nucleation will occur preferentially at defect sites, such as the vertices rather than the faces of shape-controlled seeds. Platonic metal solids are generally assumed to have vertices with nearly identical chemical potentials, and also nearly identical faces, leading to the useful generality that heterogeneous nucleation preserves the symmetry of the original seeds in the final product.
Main group Lewis acids for applications in catalysis and anion transport
Characterization of copper intermediates in enzymes and other catalysts that attack strong C-H bonds is important for unraveling oxidation catalysis mechanisms and, ultimately, designing new, more efficient catalytic systems. New insights into the nature of such intermediates may be obtained through the design, synthesis, and characterization of copper-oxygen complexes. Two key proposed examples contain [CuO2]+ and [CuOH]2+ cores, which have been suggested as possible reactive intermediates in monocopper enzymes such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase.