Incorporating Metal-Ligand and Metal-Metal Cooperativity into First Row Transition Metal Complexes with Applications in Catalysis
The formation and cleavage of chemical bonds in catalytic reactions relies on accessible two-electron redox processes that are often challenging for base metals such as first row and early transition metals. Metal-ligand and metal-metal cooperativity provide a potential solution to this challenge by enabling heterolytic bond cleavage processes and/or facilitating redox processes. Both strategies will be discussed, showcasing the many ways that metal-ligand and bimetallic cooperativity can operate and the methods by which cooperativity can be built into catalyst design. A tridentate pincer ligand featuring a reactive N-heterocyclic phosphido fragment is found to be both redox active and an active participant in bond activation across the metal-phosphide bond, with catalytic applications in alkene hydroboration. A tetradentate bis(amido)bis(phosphide) ligand has been coordinated to iron and it has been shown that the resulting complex can activate two σ bonds across the two iron-amide bonds in the molecule without requiring a change in the formal metal oxidation state. In the context of metal-metal cooperativity, phosphinoamide-linked early/late heterobimetallic frameworks have been shown to support metal-metal multiple bonds and facilitate redox processes across a broad range of metal-metal combinations and the resulting complexes have been shown to activate small molecules and catalyze organic transformations.